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INTRODUCTION

India is a diverse country which is been reputed for its culture and tradition. All of us need to respect our culture and society. So today we are going to talk about beautiful architecture situated in Patan, Gujarat. Rankivav is situated in Patan and is also known as Queen’s Stepwell. It is located on the banks of the Saraswati river. It is reputed for its designed inverted temple which highlights the purity of water. This structure was built in memory of Bhima, by his queen Udyamati. Rankivav was constructed during Chalukya Dynasty. It has the structure of Goddesses like Lakshmi, Parvathi, Saraswati, Durga, and many more. Rankivav has a great amount of historical and architectural significance:

  • stepwell culture.
  • architecture cultures of Rankivav.
  • the contribution of Queen, Udyamati.
  • a public structure.

The famous sculptures are:

1) The Ananta Sayana Vishu, at each of the lower levels with the Shesh Nag protecting him.

2) The 10 avatars of Vishnu – Vamana, Varaha, Korma, Narasimha, Krishna, Rama, Buddha, Balram, Kalki, and others.

3) The demon who was cursed to lift the weight of the world

4) An ancient game played by the artisans who built Rani Ki Vav

5) Tridev- Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, with their consorts

6) Mahisasura Mardini slaying the demon

 

AUTHENTICITY

It has a high level of intensity in material substance design workmanship. Though it maintains its authenticity in material wise in substance but some punctual reconstruction for its stability and necessary. The outer terrace has slopes that are made of smooth material to prevent soil erosion following stronger rainfall. Rankivav, unfortunately, cannot retain its authenticity due to altered groundwater levels.

PROTECTION MEASUREs

The ancient monuments and Archaeological Sites Act in 1958 has protected the property as a National monument. The management of the property is under the responsibility of IAS and its team. The preparations for the property and its implementation is in 2013, by management teams

EAST WEST LINK, MELBOURNE

Melbourne is the capital of the Australian state of Victoria. It is last the most populous city in the state of Victoria. It occupied most of the coastline of Port Phillip Bay. The East-West Link is a road construction of an 18km tollway in the city.

It was intended to connect the Eastern Freeway at Clifton Hill with the Western Ring Road at Sunshine West. The government signed a $5.3 billion contract to build the EAST WEST CONNECT consortium in September 2014, right before the state elections. The construction became a central issue in the election and due to change in the government, the project was canceled for $1.1 billion.

The first stage in this project was a 4.4km tunnel from Hoddle Street, Clifton Hill to Citylink at Parkville. This road development was due for completion in the year 2020. The second stage was a ring road, due by early 2023. The entire project would cost around $15-$17 billion.
This freeway road project first emerged in 1954. The aims to achieve through this road
development was:

Mumbai Coastal ROAD INFORMATION:

The Mumbai Coastal Road is an under-construction, 8-lane long freeway, that runs along the Mumbai Western coastline which connects Marine Lines in the South to Kandivali in the north.

This project was to be used by 130000 vehicles daily and was expected to reduce the traveling time between South Mumbai and western suburbs from 2 hours to 40 minutes.

The route length of this Coastal Road is 22.2 km long and the estimated cost for the project is around 12000 crores to 14000 crores.

There are also plans to extend the road till Marve and Ghodbunder Road. It is to be estimated that the first phase which is between the Princess Street flyover to the end of Bandra- Worli Sea Link would be completed by mid-2022.

When we talk about planning, Prithviraj Chauhan proposed the Coastal Road project as an alternative plan to Western Freeway.

He asked MSRDC to think of building coastal roads instead of capital-intensive Sea Link for which he appointed a Joint technical committee compromising of experts and officials under the guidance of Municipal Commissioner, Subodh Kumar, in 2012. The work started showing the connection between two areas where the Freeway would have 18 entry and exit points along with its root and the project was estimated to cost about 80 billion-200 billion. The critics of the freeway opposed it due to the reclamation required and also cited the possible environmental degradation along the coast.

 

Mumbai Coastal Road PROTEST

One of the features of this project is- there would be more public spaces such as cycle track, pedestrian underpasses, or foot overbridges at every 500M, along with advanced parking facilities and recreational zones. The work of Mumbai Coastal Road looks quite well ambitious.

The tunnel boring machine which is said to be the largest in India and named “Navala” was used to create a 3.45-kilometer, twin undersea tunnel from Priyadarshini Park to Girgaum Chowpatty.

The tunnel under Malabar Hill and over the entertainers near Hajiali and long-sea hugging stretches of road are just some common features of this ambitious Coastal Road which are meant to link Marine Lines in the South Mumbai to the Northern suburb of Kandivali.

The residents of Mumbai held up protests against the Coastal Road project along with the city's West Coast. The group of activists assembled at Breach Candy’s Tata Garden, where they held a peaceful march towards Priyadarshini Park to raise their voice against the reclamation of the project, which was to be undertaken.

The police came and intervened and threatened the protesting group, that they would impose section 144. The public who had gathered to watch the ongoing protesting event were dispersed and were not even allowed to stand across the street. This silent mark could not proceed further as the police denied permission.

The Mumbai Coastal Road project was proposed for the betterment of time as well as traveling issues. It was seen as a positive side but some controversies were to be faced.  The coastal pollution and encroachment were the ever-growing issue for which the Indian government drafted coastal regulation notification for better management.

There were however many violations that occurred but were not listed due to scarcity in data. This article is basically based on the violation and the controversies taking place in the future. this study uses satellite imagery. To know the violations that have occurred in the following us 2002-2008, 2014 along the coastal regions of Maharashtra.

The Metropolitan areas have higher violations as compared to other areas because of increased urbanization and regional occupations like fishing this study is basically for providing information about violation areas that could help us formulate execute and inspect the coastal regulation. (Joshi, Kale,2013)

This study draws attention toward the ongoing project that seeks to understand the various ways in which the new geographies of law, as well as the violations along with the questionable motive, result in contestation over the coastal commons in the Mumbai region. India's coast is undergoing a process of social-economic change that involves new and competing claims on space and resources.

The Aarti sandal fishing population of India has been affected and they have approached everywhere to the set of new claims that are being applied. Fishing is undoubtedly the oldest economic activity prevailing along the coast of India's mainland and it consists youth of as a chief source of livelihood.

It is found that there are currently in India with a total number of people depending on fishing for livelihood is approx. 25 million. The new Coastal Plains have great pressure on pressure livelihood and survival as well as coastal commons that are already and the stress due to coastal erosion patterns loss of biodiversity and ecological degradation. The co

mpetition and conflict over fishing grounds have also increased which has threatened their space and resources by competing claims caused by industrialization urbanization on climate change.

 

THE COASTAL ZONE REGULATION

The coastal zone Regulation Act has played many multiple roles and also contradictory roles in redefining access to and use of coastal commons.

When we see from the social logical point of view the inequalities which are related to class caste livelihood or economic growth it has impacted the postal common and has created new contestations and the old conflicts remain unsolved.

The fishing population bears the impact and are being contested and reshaped in interaction with new claimants and their interest.

This article is all about how the environmental protection act was to be formed and what other acts should be involved in the construction of Coastal Road.

The coastal regulation zone notification was made under the provision of the Environment Protection Act in 1991 to protect the coastal environment social and livelihood security of the fishing community.

This article also gives us a glance at the effect of coastal regulation zone rules and violations in the Mumbai Metro politician region which has experienced great growth due to urbanization and industrialization. it is also seen that there was the destruction of mangroves and other species of fishes which played a crucial role in sustaining.

Coastal Ecology and urban biodiversity have declined due to environmental and social-economic consequences.

Citizens also protested against the translocation of coral due to the development of the Mumbai coastal road.

Took initiative to save the coastal marine life and the livelihood of fishes of Mumbai who were being impacted by the coastal road project.

This awareness was spread very easily due to social media and many of them joined to save the corals. Though BMC had permitted to translocate the corals the environmental list and the other marine biologist said that the corals cannot survive this change and destroy the corals.

For this several petitions were filled in the courts against the reclamation of the project to which the high court made the Mumbai coastal road project to be stopped until the fresh environment approval arrives.

 

Mumbai Coastal Road CONCLUSION

The Coastal Road involved 900 square meters of land from the sea which is likely to disrupt the livelihood of coastal fishing communities and tidal patterns.

It can also destroy the fragile ecosystem and place Mumbai at greater risk of monsoon flooding. Despite knowing the consequences, there were only limited citizens who were opposed to the Coastal Road project. The environmentalist, urban planners, transport experts, and fishing communities were the first ones who objected to this project 6 years ago.

resident across Mumbai have not come together to stall the project which happens in Save Aarey Movement in fact there were smaller cities in the group which began to protest against the Coastal Road after the reclamation work for the first 10 kilometers was in progress.

They need efforts to raise awareness about the problems along the Coastal Road and have also shown unity up with activists to stand against the project. (Aarefa,2020)

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